I rarely report decisions of the Northern Ireland courts because they are not binding in England and Wales. However, this is the second consecutive month in which a Northern Irish decision is worthy of comment, this time from the Court of Appeal in Patterson v Castlereagh Borough Council.
Mr Patterson, a lead claimant for the purposes of a multiple claim, alleged that there was an unlawful deduction from his wages because he was no longer paid holiday pay relating to casual work as a recreation assistant in addition to his post as an assistant plant engineer. His claim was amended to allege that his holiday pay did not take into account the voluntary overtime he worked in his full time post.
His claim relating to his casual work was successful and this was not challenged. Consequently his appeal was limited to the voluntary overtime aspect. In this case Mr Patterson was asked to work overtime by his employer and could choose whether or not to do so because it was not a contractual obligation. Hence its classification as voluntary. There was a technical point concerning whether Mr Patterson had established the earnings he received pursuant to the voluntary overtime but both parties agreed that the point of principle should be determined.
Assuming that the earnings were established evidence submitted for the appeal suggested that they would have amounted an average additional pay of £60 per week. Having considered the relevant sections of the Working Time Directive the Court went on to consider the relevant case law. In British Airways plc v Williams (2012) the Supreme Court considered whether, for the purposes of calculating holiday pay, a pilot’s remuneration should be treated as basic pay or whether it should be based on “normal remuneration”, i.e. including payments “intrinsically linked” to the performance of the employee’s duties. Having referred the question to the European Court of Justice the answer was that it should be based on normal remuneration.
In Lock v British Gas (2014) that principle was extended to include commission payments and in Bear Scotland Limited and Others (2015) employees were successful in having included in the holiday calculation overtime which they were required to work, but which the employer was not obliged to offer.
The Court of Appeal noted that the rationale behind the Working Time Directive is that “a worker should not have any disincentive placed in his path that may lead to him not taking his holidays – if he comes to expect a certain level of pay as normal then he should receive that during his holiday period”. Applying that principle to this case it was wrong that voluntary overtime could not as a matter of principle be included in the calculation of holiday pay for the purposes of the Working Time Regulations.
It is important to note that the Court of Appeal went on to say that determining entitled would be a question of fact in each case. However the rationale appears logical and it is, of course, entirely consistent with recent authorities and the trend for establishing what constitutes “normal pay”. Consequently, unless there are good reasons for not doing so, employers should use this approach as the basis for making relevant calculations.